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P. Hosseini, A. Kaveh, A. Naghian, A. Abedi,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2024)

The global population growth and the subsequent surge in housing demand have inevitably led to an increase in the demand for concrete, and consequently, cement. This has posed environmental challenges, as cement factories are significant contributors to carbon dioxide emissions. One promising solution is to incorporate pozzolanic materials into concrete production. This study investigates the effects of using travertine sludge as a partial substitute for cement. Seven different mix designs, along with a control mix, were created and compared. The primary variable was the ratio of travertine sludge to cement weight, considered in intervals of 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% of the cement's weight. Various tests were conducted, including compressive strength and flexural strength at ages of 7, 28, and 90 days, as well as a permeability test at 28 days. The findings revealed interesting patterns. At the 7-day mark, as the percentage of travertine sludge increased, there was a decrease in compressive strength. However, by the 28-day mark, the concrete displayed a varied behavior: using up to 30% travertine sludge by weight reduced the strength, but exceeding 30% resulted in increased strength. At the 90-day mark, an overall increase in strength was observed with the rise in travertine sludge percentage. Such pozzolanic effects on compressive strength were somewhat predictable. Additionally, based on the flexural strength tests, travertine sludge can be deemed a viable substitute for a certain percentage of cement by weight. This research underscores the potential of sustainable alternatives in the construction industry, promoting both professional development and personal branding for those engaged in eco-friendly practices.

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